Saturday, 31 March 2012

The Bronze Age Boat in Dover

Albion is the ancient Celtic name for Britain, and is believed to refer to Dover, home to the Bronze Age Boat

Dover during the Bronze Age
The name Dover is generally accepted as being of Celtic origin, deriving from Dubra, meaning 'the waters'. The name of Dover's river Dour stems from the same Celtic word, and is considered to mean literally 'the river'. Likewise, the name Kent is of Celtic origin; according to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, the name comes from the Brythonic Kantion, meaning probably 'corner land'.

The ancestors of all the populations that settled in the British Isles are likely to have passed either near or through Dover. The White cliffs of Dover are the only part of Britain visible from the European continent, and so, in prehistoric times, any families attempting to cross the stretch of sea dividing Europe from Britain would have directed their small boats towards Dover's cliffs. An inlet between the cliffs formed a natural haven for sea-faring vessels, and the various arms of Dover's river Dour running into the sea made it possible for boats to move sufficiently inland to take up a safe mooring position, thus making Dover an ideal port.

Taking into account the proximity to the continent, it is reasonable to imagine Dover as being the oldest port in the British Isles, and maybe also home to the oldest settlement. Pottery dating back as far as 1800 BC has been found on the Eastern Heights near Dover Castle, and can be seen on display in Dover Museum together with numerous other Bronze Age items.

Albion and the White Cliffs of Dover

The ancient Celtic name for Britain is Albion, and is believed to refer initially to the white cliffs of Dover. Historical references to Britain prior to the first century BC are both rare and vague, and stem mainly from the ancient Greek colony of Marseilles in modern France.

The idea that Albion derives from the Latin albus, meaning white, is misleading, as the Celtic name Albion was mentioned in Greek scripts from Marseilles possibly as far back as the sixth century BC, whereas the Romans first came into contact with Britain during the middle of the first century BC. The original meaning of the Celtic name Albion remains surrounded in mystery, with various interpretations being given. It is far from clear whether the name was used only during the Iron Age, or already in the earlier Bronze Age.

The Bronze Age Boat

The Bronze Age is considered to start in Britain in the latter half of the third millennium BC, and followed the Neolithic Age. It continued to around 800 BC, when iron was introduced. At first, copper was used on its own, but within time people discovered that bronze could be obtained by adding a small quantity of tin to the copper. It was used to manufacture tools, replacing the older flint implements of the Neolithic Stone Age. Tin reserves were abundant in Cornwall and Devon, and around 1600 BC tin was being exported from Britain to Gaul.

The oldest known sea-faring vessel in the world was discovered in Dover in 1992. Dating to 1550 BC, the Bronze Age Boat was conserved owing to a protective mud case that had formed around the wood, concealing it from contact with the air. The larger part of the vessel was retrieved and is preserved in Dover Museum.

A piece of shale from Dorset was found in the boat, revealing that the vessel had travelled along the English Channel in the direction of Devon and Cornwall. The evidence shows that long before the Iron Age, cargo vessels were transiting along Britain's southern coast and crossing the Strait of Dover, operating within the context of established trading links that were vital to the Bronze Age civilisation in Britain and Europe.


  •  Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, edited by Victor Watts, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 
  •  Dover Museum. 

Written by D. Alexander

The British Isles in the Neolithic Stone Age:

Celtic Origins in the British Isles:

Photo 1: Albion, the White Cliffs of Dover

Photo 2: Light Tower Church on Eastern Heights, above the Port of Dover

Photo 3: The Union Jack In High, Albion, Dover

Saturday, 17 March 2012

The British Isles in the Neolithic Stone Age

The British Isles are home to monuments and even houses built of stone thousands of years before the foundation of Rome

Neolithic Stone Age Monuments
The many Stone Age monuments in the British Isles are silent records of prehistoric populations who carried out their architectural work using stone and flint tools but left no written accounts of themselves. In Britain and Ireland, the Stone Age gave way to the Bronze Age around the end of the third millennium BC.

The latter part of the Stone Age is known as Neolithic, when people no longer lived in caves or depended on hunting and gathering, but had learned to build wooden houses, to farm the land and keep herds of cattle. The age of monuments from this period is calculated using radiocarbon dates, and as these give only an approximate estimation, dates referring to the same monument may vary by hundreds of years.

The Neolithic monument of Stonehenge near Salisbury in the south of England is the most imposing testimony to British prehistoric civilisation. According to English Heritage, the first works were carried out on the site around 5,000 years ago. It is thought to have been completed around 500 years later with the transportation of enormous stone blocks from as far as Wales.

Although there is no indication as to whether the people who carried out the work of dragging, shaping and erecting these enormous blocks of stone spoke a Celtic language, the mystical outlay of the site and the absence of inscriptions seem to have at least some parallel in the secretive functions of the druids, the priests among the Celts.

Ancient British Religion Without Script
The druids were renowned for maintaining secret many aspects of their knowledge, apart from that which they would communicate orally. The result is that, owing to the absence of any form of writing or inscription, no written history of the Celts or of any other population in Britain prior to the first century BC has been passed on to later generations.

This is in stark contrast to the priests among the ancient Israelites, who meticulously wrote all the scripts of the Old Testament and copied them throughout the ages; and to the priests of ancient Egypt, who sought by way of hieroglyphics and wall paintings to give a descriptive account of their time.

The enormous blocks at Stonehenge are written in the ground, like gigantic letters, and yet to this day no-one can understand with certainty their purpose and function, or significantly fathom the religious customs of the people who placed them there. Although there is no formal link between Neolithic monuments and the Celts of the Iron Age, the druids would have almost certainly known the original purpose of the circular henges and stone chambers of Britain and Ireland.

Knowledge of ancient Celtic traditions, together with archaeological research, suggests that the Celts of the Iron Age believed in a spiritual presence within nature. The natural presence of groves, water and trees fascinated the Celts more than any structure of human origin.

The much older culture of the Neolithic Age, therefore, may have been centred on a different perception of religion, on a celestial God whose presence can be mirrored in the light of the sun entering a circular stone construction. It would seem, however, that the religion of the Celtic druids replaced this with a perception of divine presence to be found within nature itself, an earthly presence of the Divine.

Architecture Aligned to a Cosmic Order
The Neolithic chamber of Bryn Celli Ddu on the island of Anglesey in Wales, according to the Ancient-Wisdom web page, dates back to about 5,000 years, and is thought to have been built on an even older site. Although described as a burial chamber, it has been suggested that it may have also served as an agricultural calendar.

The three mounds, or cairns, of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth, near the town of Drogheda in Ireland, are estimated to be about 5,200 years old. Detailed information can be found on the online web page Mythical Ireland as to the original functions of these stone chambers. Generally described as passage-tombs, they share a fascinating secret with Stonehenge, Bryn Celli Ddu and many other Neolithic stone chambers and henges: their structural design may be based upon the cosmic order.

A similar pattern is found at Maeshowe on the Orkney Islands, where a cairn with entrance passage and chambers dating to about 2700 BC incorporates the same form of Stone Age architecture that is seen in England, in Anglesey and in Ireland and appears to be designed according to a specific alignment with the sun.

There is a general acceptance that these and numerous other Neolithic structures in Britain and Ireland were designed to receive the light of the rising sun and of the setting sun within stone chambers by way of an entrance; or to receive the sunlight that passes in a particular lapse of time between vertically erected stone slabs, such as at Stonehenge.

The winter solstice and the summer solstice are considered essential calculations of time in determining the positioning of the entrances and pillars. This would imply a firm belief on the part of Britain and Ireland's ancient inhabitants in a cosmic order that ensures day and night and the repetition of the seasons, a repetition that is vital to human life on Earth and ensures prosperity and posterity.

Skara Brae and Prehistoric Stone Houses
The Neolithic village of Skara Brae on the Orkney Islands is made up of stone houses that were linked to each other by a system of stone passages covered with slabs. According to the online web site Orkneyjar, its origins go back to the late fourth or early third millennium BC.

The even older Orkney farmstead of Knap of Howar, comprising two oblong stone buildings, could have been inhabited as early as 5,600 years ago. Skara Brae and Knap of Howar are two examples of stone architecture used in the building of houses that existed in Britain thousands of years before the foundation of Rome!

  •  English Heritage online;
  •  Ancient-Wisdom online;
  •  Mythical Ireland online;
  •  Orkneyjar online.

Article written by D. Alexander

Read about Celtic Dover in Kent:

Read more: Celtic Origins in Britain and Ireland

Photo: ancient pathway of stone in Dover

Saturday, 10 March 2012

British Party: Marriage Is Between Man and Woman

Marriage is Between Man and Woman
British Party accepts marriage as according to the true English tradition, only between man and woman. The Word of God expressed in the Bible reveals that marriage can only be between one man and one woman. This is in the origins of mankind, as God created Adam and Eve to live together and love each other.

The Kentish Faith
The origins of the English Church started with a marriage. Prince Ethelbert of Kent married the Frankish Princess Bertha in Canterbury. Prince Ethelbert believed in the religion of the Anglo-Saxons, who called God by the name of Thor. The English word Thursday comes from the name Thor.
Princess Bertha was of the Christian Faith, and believed in Jesus Christ. She carried the Gospel with her over to Kent.

The First English Church
Prince Ethelbert succeeded his father Eormenric to the throne of Kent, whose capital was in Canterbury. King Ethelbert restored an ancient church in Canterbury that had been built by the Britons and dedicated it to Saint Martin of Tours. In this church his consort Queen Bertha worshiped the Lord, and King Ethelbert himself converted to the Faith in Christ. This came about before the arrival of Augustine in Canterbury.

Saint Martin's in Canterbury
The church of Saint Martin in Canterbury is the oldest church dedicated by the English to Christ Son of God. This church is testimony to marriage between man and woman as being the foundation of the English Church.

British Party recognises marriage as being only between one man and one woman. The Christian Faith will prevail, and no law on marriage that is contrary to the Christian value on which the English Church is founded may ever be valid in British Party. No other law will ever change this!   

Written by D. Alexander

Read on about the origins of the English Church:

Read about the Celtic origins of the English Church:

Photo 1: Queen Bertha (left) and her daughter Princess Ethelburga (right), Saint Martin's Canterbury

Photo 2 and 3: Saint Martin's Canterbury